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Rabu, 25 Januari 2012

Membuat alkaline mineral water


Calcium equilibrium was described by Professor B.E.C. Nordin in an editorial in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition:
Calcium intake, absorption, and excretion make up the 3 components of the calcium paradigm. To remain in calcium balance, net absorbed calcium (the difference between dietary intake and fecal output) has to equal calcium losses in the urine and through the skin. If that is not achieved, the calcium balance becomes negative and the difference between intake and output is drawn from the skeleton to maintain the (ionized) calcium in the extracellular fluid. Sooner or later, probably in a matter of days, this requires bone breakdown and the development of osteoporosis.
Calcium (Ca++) intake is important at all ages, but the need is higher during childhood, fetal growth, pregnancy, and lactation. Epidemiological, animal, and clinical studies show that the occurrence of osteoporosis decreases as the dietary calcium intake increases. A diet that is fortified in calcium may reduce the rate of age-related bone loss and hip fractures, especially among adult women. In spite of this knowledge, nutritional surveys indicate that more than half of North Americans consume inadequate levels of calcium and, on average, adult women consume only 60% of the required daily calcium intake. Many foods, such as orange juice, are now fortified with calcium, but naturally bioavailable calcium is found almost exclusively in milk, milk products, and water. Drinking water may be a significant source of calcium, and calcium-rich mineral water may provide over one-third of the recommended dietary intake of this mineral in adults.
Epidemiological studies also suggest that increased dietary intake of magnesium (Mg++) reduces the occurrence of schemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. Increased levels of magnesium in drinking water are associated with decreased occurrence of cardiac disease. The majority of the U.S. population consumes less than the daily magnesium requirement, and many individuals ingest less than 80% of the recommended level. Magnesium is found in foods such as nuts, green leafy vegetables, cereals, and seafood. However, magnesium in water is highly bioavailable, and is absorbed approximately 30% faster and better than magnesium from food.
 Mineral Water Recipes:

 Recipe 1: Calcium/Magnesium water
  • 1 liter filtered tap water
  • 1/8 tsp. magnesium sulfate (epsom salts)
  • 1/8 tsp. calcium chloride

 Recipe 2: Alkaline Magnesium water
  • 1 liter filtered tap water
  • 1/8 tsp. (teaspoon) sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) 
  • 1/8 tsp. potassium bicarbonate
  • 1/8 tsp. magnesium sulfate (epsom salts)
   
NOTE: Calcium Chloride should not be combined with the bicarbonates because calcium carbonate precipitates. The sodium bicarbonate becomes sodium chloride (table salt), and potassium bicarbonate becomes potassium chloride.
Ca++ + 2 HCO3- → CaCO3 + H2CO3
H2CO3 → H2O + CO2
Measure carefully. Make sure that the spoons are level and not heaping. If you cannot find a measuring spoon set with 1/8 teaspoon, you can double the recipe. Use two liters of water and the more common 1/4 teaspoon measure. It is advisable to filter the source tap water with a water filter pitcher to assure that the water does not have heavy metals such as lead. Mix all the ingredients until the mineral salts are completely dissolved.
Ingredients:
All these ingredients are GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  • Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O) is better known as Epsom salts, and has laxative properties when more than 2 teaspoons are ingested at one time. Epsom salts are sold in most drugstores and some grocery stores.
  • Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is used to preserve the crispness of vegetables during pickling. Food grade calcium chloride is available from shops that provide ingredients for canning and food preservation such as BulkFoods.com or Grandma Gertie's Cooking Supplies
  • Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), baking soda, is used as an antacid and a leavening agent in self-rising flours. It has wide application in making fluffy baked products. Baking soda is available in most grocery stores. Do not confuse baking soda with baking powder.
  • Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) is used to neutralize the acidity of wines and keep them from being too tart. Potassium bicarbonate can be obtained from winemaking suppliers such as HomeBrewers.comPresque Isle Wine Cellars, or Grandma Gertie's Cooking Supplies.
The bicarbonates make the water alkaline and can increase the pH of body fluids.
The molecular weight of these compounds can be used to calculate the amount of each mineral in the recipe.
Molar mass of CaCl2 = 110.984 g/mol (36.112% Ca by weight)
Molar mass of MgSO4·7H2O = 246.475 g/mol (9.861% Mg by weight)
Molar mass of NaHCO3 = 84.007 g/mol (27.367% Na by weight)
Molar mass of KHCO3 = 100.115 g/mol (39.053% K by weight)

Since 1/8 tsp of each ingredient weighs approximately 0.6 grams (600 mg), the amount of each mineral can be calculated by multiplying the percentage by weight in the molar mass of the compound times the weight used in the recipe, e.g., 600mg × 0.27 for sodium. NOTE: The composition of home-made mineral water also depends on the minerals present in the water before addition of these mineral salts. Check with the water commission in your area to obtain an analysis of the minerals in your local water source. For example, the tap water in Washington, D.C. [4] has the following average concentrations of minerals in mg/L: Ca 38.9, Mg 10.3, Na 20.5, K 3.3.
 Mineral Composition of the Water

 Recipe 1: Calcium/Magnesium water
 Calcium   Ca++216 mg/L
 Magnesium   Mg++    59 mg/L

 Recipe 2: Alkaline Magnesium water
 Magnesium   Mg++    59 mg/L
 Sodium   Na+ 162 mg/L
 Potassium   K+234 mg/L
 Bicarbonate   HCO3-798 mg/L
For comparison, the table below lists the mineral compositions of several commercially available bottled waters in North America and in Europe. The mineral content of the Calcium/Magnesium water recipe above is similar to that of European waters with moderate mineral content, such as San Pellegrino from Italy. The European waters with a high mineral content are high in sodium and have a salty taste.
Adding Carbonation
Many mineral waters are effervescent when they emerge from the ground. The fizzines is due to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) which forms bubbles as the water is decompressed from a high underground pressure to the atmospheric pressure on the surface. You can make your mineral water effervescent using a soda siphon and carbon dioxide cartridges like the ones illustrated here. Once you have prepared the mineral water recipe, pour it into the soda siphon, and plug in the carbon dioxide cartridge following the manufacturer's instructions. The soda siphon with the carbonated water may be kept in the refrigerator until ready for use.

More and more people are using Sodium Bicarbonate Water since it’s easy to obtain and a natural way to alter the acidic content in your body. Athletes use it to help the body retain water for longer periods of time. However, most people don’t know what they need to know about this natural mineral. Here’s some information on Sodium Bicarbonate that you’ll definitely want to know before drinking Sodium Bicarbonate. sodium bicarbonate water

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a white crystalline powder commonly known to as baking soda. It is classified as an acid salt, formed by combining an acid (carbonic) and abase (sodium hydroxide), and it reacts with other chemicals as a mild alkali. At temperatures above 300°F (149°C), sodium bicarbonate decomposes into sodium carbonate (a more stable substance), water, and carbon dioxide.

In addition to its many home uses, sodium bicarbonate also has many industrial applications. For instance, sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide when heated. Since carbon dioxide is heavier than air, it can smother flames by keeping oxygen out, making sodium bicarbonate a useful agent in fire extinguishers. Other applications include air pollution control (because it absorbs sulfur dioxide and other acid gas emissions), abrasive blastings for removal of surface coatings, chemical manufacturing, leather tanning, oil well drilling fluids (because it precipitates calcium and acts asa lubricant), rubber and plastic manufacturing, paper manufacturing, textile processing, and water treatment (because it reduces the level of lead and other heavy metals).

The native chemical and physical properties of sodium bicarbonate account for its wide range of applications, including cleaning, deodorizing, buffering, and fire extinguishing.
 Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes odors chemically, rather than masking or absorbing them. Consequently, it is used in bath salts and deodorant body powders. Sodium bicarbonate tends to maintain a pH of 8.1 (7 is neutral) even when acids, which lower pH, or bases, which raise pH, are added to the solution. Its ability to tabletize makes it a good effervescent ingredient in antacids and denture cleaning products. Sodium bicarbonate is also found in some anti-plaque mouthwash products and toothpaste. When sodium bicarbonate is used as a cleaner in paste form or dry on a damp sponge, its crystalline structure provides a gentle abrasion that helps to remove dirt without scratching sensitive surfaces. Its mild alkalinity works to turn up fatty acids contained in dirt and grease into a form of soap that can be dissolved in water and rinsed easily. Sodium bicarbonate is also used as a leavening agent in making baked goods such as bread or pancakes. When combined with an acidic agent (such as lemon juice),carbon dioxide gas is released and is absorbed by the product's cells. As the gas expands during baking, the cell walls expand as well, creating a leavened product.




berikut adalah beberapa US PATENT untuk alkaline water
1. Alkaline additive for drinking water
2. Porous ceramic for producing alkali ion water, method for producing the ...
3. Process for producing improved alkaline drinking water and the product ...
4. Alkali Buffer + Minerals Supplement Additive
5. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ALKALINE WATER
6. APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR ELECTROLYZED WATER
7. Processed water and therapeutic uses thereof
8. Alkaline water-soluble thermoplastic resin and adhesive comprising the same
9.Composition and therapeutic uses thereof
10. Electrolyzer for alkaline water electrolysis



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